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文章结构题I

 

时间:2012年06月28日来源:本站原创作者:admin点击:

  一、题型概述
     文章结构题是指针对文章的整体篇章结构或某一段落的发展层次所设置的问题。这类题型主要考查同学们在理解全文的基础上对文章所描述事件的发展顺序、所说明事物的结构层次,或在论述观点过程中使用的论证方法进行推测、归纳和总结的能力。这就要求同学们学会把握文章的脉络,理解段落层次之间的关系,弄清作者的写作方法。

二、题干主要表现形式
     文章结构题的题干表现形式主要有以下几种:组织结构题:1. How is the passage organised? 2. Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?3. The author develops the passage mainly by _______.4. The second paragraph is mainly developed by _______. 坐标题:1. What is most likely to be discussed in the paragraph that follows?2. What will the author most probably talk about next? 3. The fifth paragraph in the passage serves as ______. 排序题:What is the right order for the following facts?

三、答题技巧
     解答这类题型,除了靠平时多加训练,掌握规律并总结方法外,还可以从以下解题技巧入手:1. 明确体裁。高考会涉及文学作品、科普文章、公告等不同类型的文章,它们大体可分为新闻报道、记叙文、议论文和说明文。明确文章体裁,为下一步做好准备。2. 利用特点。不同体裁的文章有不同的特点,同学们可以根据其特点把握这些文章的一般组织规律。例如:新闻报道通常第一段的信息量非常大,其余部分都围绕它而展开;记叙文通常按照某一顺序进行叙述,如时间顺序、事情发生的先后顺序等;议论文通常展开方式是"议题问题原因对策""议题问题对策结论""反面话题驳斥观点原因观点展望未来"说明文通常的展开方式是"积极事物优点缺点展望未来""消极事物缺点优点回顾过去"3. 把握段意。英语文章讲究主题段和主题句。每一篇或每一段文字都有自己特有的起承转合与行文脉络,因此准确把握段意,明确各部分之间的内在逻辑关系对解题大有帮助。主题段通常在文章的开头,简要概括文章的中心思想;主题句根据段落写作手法的不同可能出现在段落的开头,也可能出现在段落的中间或末尾。4. 明确手法。文章常用举例子、作比较等手法来阐明主题观点,所以要注意一些过渡句或连词,以了解文章的组织方法。
     下面,我们就结合高二年级各个版本的教材看看如何解答文章结构题。例1Among the most well-known ethnic minorities of the English-speaking world are the Native Americans of North America, and the Australian Aborigines. It is generally agreed that Native Americans came across from Asia, somewhere between 12,000 and 25,000 years ago. Until the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th century, it is thought that there were between 1.8 million and 10 million Native Americans in North America. The people had thick straight black hair, dark eyes and brown skin. They were a hunting, fishing culture, but as they moved round, many kinds of society developed, speaking many languages. For example, in the west people lived in villages and developed an agricultural economy, whereas in the east, where it was colder, people remained a hunting culture. With the arrival of the Europeans, there were many battles over land, and the Native American population became much smaller, partly because they died from European diseases. Today, Native Americans live in only a few areas of North America. They were made citizens of the US in 1924. ...(选自外语教学与研究出版社·普通高中课程标准实验教科书《英语》7 (顺序选修)-Module 5)What is most likely to be discussed in the paragraph that follows?A. A further description of the Native Americans.B. An introduction to the AustralianAborigines.C. The similarities between the two ethnic minorities.D. The differences between the two ethnic minorities. 解析:
     选文第一段总体介绍英语语言国家的两个少数民族,即北美印第安人和澳洲土著居民,接下来第二段详细介绍北美印第安人的情况,包括他们的外貌特征、生活习惯和人口等。题目要求从四个选项中选出可能的文章的后续内容。首先,我们明确选文的体裁是说明文。其次,我们分析主题段,第一段即为本文的主题段,引出了两个话题。紧接着,第二段介绍了第一个话题,即北美印第安人的情况,并以他们在1924年成为美国居民收尾。由此我们可以看出,到此选文关于北美印第安人的介绍已经结束了,因此A项不可选;文章的后续内容将要转入另一个话题,即澳洲土著居民,故应选择B项。例2An ageing society is one in which the population of people over the age of 60 is increasing. The global population at present is about 6 billion with 1 person in every 10 aged 60 or above. The United Nations projects that by 2050, it will be 1 in every 5. This will mean that for the first time in human history the population of older persons will be larger than the population of children! What are the causes of this population change?One reason is that dramatic health advances have added 20 years to the average life-expectancy, and another is that birthrates have dropped as people, especially women, are educated. Measures to slow population growth like China’s one-child policy, have also contributed to lowered birthrates. The increase in the aged population is not just an interesting trend however; it also has severe implications for the future of global economies....(选自北京师范大学出版社·普通高中课程标准实验教科书《英语》8 (选修模块)-Unit 24)The first paragraph serves as _______.A. an example B. an introduction to the topicC. a comment on the author’s opinionD. an argument解析:
     选文讲述的是对社会老龄化现象加剧原因的探究。题目要求从四个选项中选出选文第一段对全文的作用。第一段给出了两组数据,分别是目前60岁以上人口的数量和联合国预计的205060岁以上人口的数量,通过这两组数据的对比,作者提出了本文的话题,即社会正在进入老龄化。故应选择B项。